Posts Tagged ‘linux’

Linux Recovery Software For Linux Based Computer

September 15th, 2009 Comments off

Linux Data Recovery Software Linux is a great and powerful operating system that has included unique features, advanced technologies and great applications. The reason behind its popularity is its great maintenance and security of data stored into their hard disk. Linux operating system is a multi-user and multi-tasking operating system that is the need of today’s world where unlimited data storage required into the computer. It is very powerful and easy to use operating system that has no required extra efforts. Anyone can use this that has technical sound or not.

Since it has multi-user & multitasking capacities, it is widely used around the world and there is a big community of Linux users. Although it is a high quality product, but sometimes it also face problems like data crash or data corruption. The corrupted data can be user stored data of system data which is necessary to run the system properly. If this kind of unfortunate event happens and you found that you can not access your files then you need to use certain recovery software so save yourself from this disaster. The software which is used to do certain critical operations are known as Linux Data Recovery Software.

The Linux Data Recovery Software can do all kind of recovery based on Ext2, Ext3 & ReiserFS file system recovery, recovers Linux deleted files or other kind of files. It first searches the bad sector, corrupted or deleted files and then it recovers it. Then it repairs all the files. After the repairing process finishes, it stores it on the specified location where you want to store the repaired files.

The Linux data recovery software is a must have product for all the Linux users who are professionals and thoroughly use their Linux based computer. The Linux data recovery software is made to recover all kinds of corrupted or damaged files which are on the Linux operating system. It helps you in following conditions:

  • When your files & folders are lost on your Linux desktop
  • You have accidentally formatted your hard disk
  • You have deleted the files from the trash or recycle bin
  • Operating System corruption
  • Missing files & folders
  • Missing Volumes
  • Deleted Volumes

Linux Data Recovery Software is software which can solve all your problems on your Linux based computers. To save your precious data, you must need to go for the Linux data recovery.

Linux Document Preparation

June 14th, 2009 Comments off

addftinfo        Add information to troff font files for use with groff.
afmtodit        Create font files for use with groff.
colcrt        Filter nroff output for CRT previewing.
enscript        Convert text files to postscript.
eqn        Format equations for troff. Compiles descriptions of equations embedded in troff.
geqn        Used to print special symbols and complex equations. Not user friendly.
git        GNU interactive tools.
gitaction        Per file type action script.
gitkeys        Display key sequence utility.
gitmount        Allows any block device to be mounted.
gitps        A graphical process viewer and killer program.
gitrgrep        A recursive grep program.
gitunpack        Used to unpack archive files in a given directory.
gitview        A hexadecimal or ASC file viewer.
grodvi        Convert Groff output to TeX dvi format, normally run by groff.
groff        Used as a front end for the groff document formatting system.
grops        Postscript driver for groff. invoked by groff.
gtbl        Used to prepare charts, multicolumn lists and tabular formats.
hpftodit        Create font description files for use with groff.
indxbib        Make inverted index for bibliographic databases.
lookbib        Search bibliographic databases.
nroff        Emulate nroff command with groff.
pfbtops        Translate a postscript font in .pbf format to ASCII.
pic        Compile pictures for troff or Tex.
psbb        Extract bounding box from postscript document.
refer         Preprocess bibliographic references for groff.
rpm2html        Make an html database from rpm repository.
soelim        Interpret .so requests in groff input.
tbl        Format tables for groff.
TeX        Used to format professionally typeset documents (Chapters, Headings, and paragraphs).
texi2html        Texinfo to html converter.
tfmtodit        Create font files for use with groff.
troff        Formats documents as part of the groff document formatting system.
yacc        A parser generator.

Linux Printing and Programming

June 14th, 2009 Comments off

Linux Printing

banner        Print a large banner on printer.
lpr        Print, submits a job to the printer.
Ex: lpr -Pdest filename. Dest is the destination printer. the name of the file to print is filename.
lpc        Lets you check the status of the printer and set its state.
lpq        Shows the contents of a spool directory for a given printer.
lprm         Removes a job from the printer queue.
gs        Ghostscript – A PostScript interpreter.
pr        Print a file. Ex: pr filename |pg.
tunelp        Set various parameters for the lp device.

Linux Programming

as86        Assembler
awk        C programming language – allows finding of lines with specific characters.
bc        A precision calculator language.
cproto        Reads in c source files and generates function prototypes for all the functions.
ctags        Generate tag (index) files for source code.
dialog        Display dialog boxes from shell scripts.
egcs        GNU project C and C++ compiler.
f2c        Converts fortran code to c code.
gawk        Pattern scanning and processing language. GNU’s implementation of awk.
gcc        GNU c and c++ compiler.
-g        Produce debugging information.
-pg        Generate profile info that will allow the gprof program to display timing info.
gdb        Debugging program.
gprof        In /usr/bin, allows you to tell where most of the execution time is spent in a program.
igawk        Gawk with include files.
indent        Reformats c source code for consistent indenting and opening and closing brackets consistent.
ld         The GNU linker.
ld86        Linker for as86.
make        GNU make utility to maintain a group of programs.
nm        Lists symbols from object files.
objcopy        Copy and translate object files.
objdump        Display information from object files.
p2c        Converts pascal code to c code.
prompt        set prompt = “waldo” (in C shell) ps1 = ‘waldo’ (in BOURNE shell)
PS1=”[\u@\h \w]\\$ ” makes prompt = [username@hostname current directory]
see the BASH or your shell’s man page for more information.
size        List section sizes and total size.
strip        Discard symbols from object files.
xxgdb        X windows based graphical user interface to gdb.

Scripting Languages

Perl        A command interpreter for the Practical Extraction and Report Language (perl).
Python        A report language.
Tcl        Tool command language shell. Enter by typing tclsh.
info        Return information about the state of the Tcl interpreter.
Tk        A graphical user extension to Tcl based on X windows. Commands are same as Tcl.

Linux User Management

June 14th, 2009 Comments off

ac        Print statistics about users’ connect time.
accton        Turn on accounting of processes. To turn it on type “accton /var/log/pacct”.
adduser        Ex: adduser mark – Effect: Adds a user to the system named mark
chage        Used to change the time the user’s password will expire.
chfn        Change the user full name field finger information
chgrp        Changes the group ownership of files.
chown        Change the owner of file(s ) to another user.
chpasswd        Update password file in batch.
chroot        Run command or interactive shell with special root directory.
chsh        Change the login shell.
edquota        Used to edit user or group quotas. This program uses the vi editor to edit the quota.user and files. If the environment variable EDITOR is set to emacs, the emacs editor will be used. Type “export EDITOR=emacs” to set that variable.
faillog        Examine faillog and set login failure limits.
finger        See what users are running on a system.
gpasswd        Administer the /etc/group file.
groupadd        Create a new group.
grpck        Verify the integrity of group files.
grpconv        Creates /etc/gshadow from the file /etc/group which converts to shadow passwords.
grpunconv        Uses the files /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow to create /etc/passwd, then deletes /etc/shadow which converts from shadow passwords.
groupdel        Delete a group.
groupmod        Modify a group.
groups        Print the groups a user is in
id        Print real and effective user id and group ids.
last        Display the last users logged on and how long.
lastb        Shows failed login attempts. This command requires the file /var/log/btmp to exist in order to work. Type “touch /var/log/btmp” to begin logging to this file.
lastcomm        Display information about previous commands in reverse order. Works only if process accounting is on.
lastlog        Formats and prints the contents of the last login.
logname        Print user’s login name.
newgrp        Lets a suer log in to a new group.
newusers        Update and create newusers in batch.
passwd        Set a user’s pass word.
pwck        Verify integrity of password files.
pwconv        Convert to and from shadow passwords and groups.
quota        Display users’ limits and current disk usage.
quotaoff        Turns system quotas off.
quotaon        Turns system quotas on.
quotacheck        Used to check a filesystem for usage, and update the quota.user file.
repquota        Lists a summary of quota information on filesystems.
sa        Generates a summary of information about users’ processes that are stored in the /var/log/pacct file.
smbclient        Works similar to an ftp client enabling the user to transfer files to and from a windows based computer.
smbmount        Allows a shared directory on a windows machine to be mounted on the Linux machine.
smbpasswd        Program to change users passwords for samba.
su        Ex: su mark – Effect: changes the user to mark, If not root will need marks password.
sulogin        Single user login.
ulimit        A bash builtin command for setting the processes a user can run.
useradd        Create a new user or update default new user information.
userdel        Delete a user account and related files.
usermod        Modify a user account.
users        Print the user names of users currently logged in.
utmpdump        Used for debugging.
vigr        Edit the password or group files.
vipw        Edit the password or group files.
w        Display users logged in and what they are doing.
wall        Send a message to everybody’s terminal.
who        Display the users logged in.
whoami        Print effective user id.

Linux System Management

June 14th, 2009 Comments off


Linux System Management env        Show all environment variables.
export        Set the value of a variable so it is visible to all subprocesses that belong to the current shell.
printenv        Print all or part of environment.
reset        Restores runtime parameters for session to default values.
set        Shows how the environment is set up. This is a builtin bash command.

Library management

ldconfig        Updates the necessary links for the run time link bindings.
ldd        Tells what libraries a given program needs to run.
ltrace        A library call tracer.
trace        Same as ltrace.

Module and kernel management

depmod        Handle loadable modules automatically. Creates a makefile-like dependency file.
dmesg        Print or control the kernel ring buffer. This shows the last kernel startup messages.
genksyms        Generate symbol version information.
insmod        Install loadable kernel module.
lsmod        List currently installed kernel modules.
modprobe        Used to load a set of modules that are marked with a specified tag.
rmmod        Unload loadable modules.

Runtime level management

exit        Terminates the shell.
halt        Stop the system.
init        Process control initialization.
initscript        Script that executes inittab commands.
logout        Log the user off the system.
poweroff        Brings the system down.
reboot        Reboot the system.
runlevel        List the current and previous runlevel.
setsid        Run a program in a new session.
shutdown        If your system has many users, use the command “shutdown -h +time message”, where time is the time in minutes until the system is halted, and message is a short explanation of why the system is shutting down.
# shutdown -h +10 ‘We will install a new disk. System should be back on-line in three hours.’
telinit        By requesting run level 1 a system can be taken to single user mode.

System Configuration tools

ctrlaltdel        Set the function of the ctrl alt del combination.
isapnp        Configure ISA plug and play devices.
kbdconf         A Redhat Linux tool which configures the /etc/sysconfig/keyboard file which specifies the location of the keyboard map file. This is a GUI based tool.
kbdrate        Set the keyboard repeat rate and delay time.
kernelcfg        A Redhat GUI kernel configuration tool, Start X, then run it from a console session.
linuxconf        Redhat’s GUI linux system configuration tool.
lspci        List all pci devices.
mesg        Control write access to your terminal.
mouseconfig        A Redhat Linux tool used to configure the /etc/sysconfig.mouse file. This is a GUI tool.
ndc        Script file used to restart, stop, start the DNS server.
Printtool        Redhat’s GUI printer configuration tool.
quota        Display disk usage and limits.
quotacheck        Scan a filesystem for disk usages.
quotaoff        Turn file system quotas off.
quotaon        Turn file system quotas on.
samba        Script file used to stop, start, restart samba services when not run using inetd.
setpci        Configure pci devices.
setserial        Set/get serial port information.
setterm        Set terminal attributes.
setup        Set up devices and file systems.
stty        Used to configure and print the console devices.
swapon        Enable devices and files for paging and swapping.
swapoff        Disable devices and files for paging and swapping.
timeconfig        A Redhat Linux tool used to configure the /etc/sysconfig/clock file. This is a GUI tool used to set timezone and whether or not the clock is set to GMT time.
tset        Used to initialize terminals.

System Information

arch        Print machine architecture.
df         Shows disk free space.
du        Shows disk usage.
free        Display used and free memory on the system.
ipcrm        Provide information on ipc facilities.
ipcs        Same as ipcrm.
lsdev        Display information about installed hardware via files in the /proc directory.
lsof        List open files.
lspci        List PCI devices .
pnpdump        Lists ISA plug and play devices resource information.
procinfo        Display system status gathered from proc.
pstree        Display a tree of processes.
runlevel        Find the current and previous system runlevel.
strace        Trace ssytem calls and signals for a binary program.
stty        Change and print terminal line settings.
tload        Prints a graphic representation of the system load average.
tty        Print the filename of the terminal connected to standard input.
uname        Print system information, Prints Linux.
vmstat        Report virtual memory statistics.
xcpustate        Displays CPU states (idle, nice, system, kernel) statistics. Runs in X?

System Logging

klogd        Kernel log daemon which intercepts and logs Linux kernel messages.
logger        Make entries in the system log.
syslogd        Linux system logging utilities.
sysklogd        Linux system logging utilities.

System Security

System time
cal        Calendar.
clock        Used to change or get current time. The command “clock -–w” sets the hardware clock.
date        Print or set the system date and time.
hwclock        Set or read the hardware CMOS clock.
timed        Time server daemon to synchronize the host’s time with other machines, normally invoked at boot time from the rc(8) file.
timedc        Timed control program.
tzset        Used to change the users private time zone by setting the TZ environment variable.
uptime        Reports how long the system has been running.
zdump        Prints the current time in each zonename named on the command line.
zic        Reads text from files named on the command line and creates time conversion files.

X Management and programs

SuperProbe        Probe video hardware.
Xconfigurator        The Redhat tool used during system setup to configure X.
xconsole        Displays messages usually sent to /dev/console.
xf86config        Older version of XF86Setup.
XF86Setup        A newer X configuration program with a GUI interface which modifies the “/etc/X11/XF86Config” configuration file.
xvidtune        This program will test video modes on the fly without modification to your X configuration. Read the usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc/VideoModes.doc file before running this program.